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who built the pantheon

The porch is conventional in design, but the body of the building, an immense circular space lit solely by the light that floods through the 27-foot (8-metre) “eye,” or oculus, opening at the centre of the dome, was revolutionary; possibly this was the first of several great buildings of antiquity that were designed to favour the interior rather than the exterior. Origin of the Pantheon in Rome The original Pantheon of Rome was built between 27 & 25 BCE, under the consulship of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. The first was destroyed by fire in 80 CE and the second was struck by lightning in 110 CE and again burned down. 119 × 98.4 cm. The circular building is built using brick and concrete but was originally faced with white marble stucco to match the porch in appearance. Cartwright, Mark. The original Pantheon was built by Agrippa, Augustus’ most successful general, in 27 BC. It seems likely that the Pantheon and the Basilica of Neptune were Agrippa's sacra privata, not aedes publicae (public temples). Last modified April 09, 2018. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Pantheon-building-Rome-Italy, Sacred Destinations - Pantheon, Rome, Italy, Pantheon - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). After the Greek civilization collapsed, ot… ‘Who Built the Pantheon? Cartwright, M. (2018, April 09). Agrippa built the original Pantheon in honor of his and Augustus’ military victory at the Battle of Actium in 31 B.C.E.—one of the defining moments in the establishment of the Roman Empire (Augustus would go on to become the first Emperor of Rome). The building consists of two principal parts - the porch, which is very Classical Greek in presentation, and the circular main building which is much more Roman in style and reminiscent of the architecture of the large Roman baths. Today the Pantheon sits in the heart of Rome on the same site of the original Pantheon, which was built around 25 B.C.E. The pavement is the original and consists of a square pattern using grey granite, red porphyry, Numidian yellow and Phrygian purple marble. He was a physician and amateur architect living on Tortola, in the British Wes… It was completely rebuilt by the emperor Hadrian sometime between AD 118 and 128, and some alterations were made in … Books Pantheon, building in Rome that was begun in 27 bc by the statesman Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, probably as a building of the ordinary Classical temple type—rectangular with a gabled roof supported by a colonnade on all sides. Who built the Roman Pantheon? Interior of the Pantheon, Rome, oil on canvas by Giovanni Paolo Pannini, 1732. Agrippa, Apollodorus, Hadrian and Trajan Mark Wilson Jones Despite so much that is known about Roman buildings, there is relatively little to say about the individuals involved in the ferment of their creation. He created also the 13 metres tall statue of Athena made by gold and ivory which stood inside the temple. The porch measures 33.1 x 13.6 metres and presents a front colonnade of eight Corinthian columns 11.8 metres high. Cartwright, Mark. In 80 A.D. the pantheon burned to the ground. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Created by Beth Harris and Steven Zucker. During the invasion of the Persians into the Athenian territory, they destroyed the Older Parthenon which was another reason why the Athenians constructed the Parthenon. Related Content Steps in Numidian yellow marble extended from the outer ends of this base. We can reconstruct confidently the original appearance of many a monument, Britannica now has a site just for parents! Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Pantheon. 15 Jan 2021. One of the barrel vaults of the Pantheon that carry the weight of the massive dome / Pixabay. Choose from 500 different sets of who built pantheon? with free interactive flashcards. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. The Pantheon was built on the exact site of two earlier Pantheon buildings, one commissioned by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (27-25 BCE) and the second by Domitian. It stands in the Latin Quarter, atop the Montagne Sainte-Geneviève, in the center of the Place du Panthéon, which was named after it. From Julius Caesar to the city-state’s legendary founders, test your knowledge of ancient Rome in this quiz. The Pantheon may well be the first building from Classical architecture where the interior is deliberately made to outshine the exterior. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The interior of the porch measures 34 x 20 metres and has four rose-pink columns creating three aisles. Following Hadrian’s usual practice of dedicating rebuilt buildings and monuments in honour of the original dedicator, the Pantheon is dedicated to Marcus Agrippa and the prominent inscription on the porch façade reads: (Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, three-time consul, made this). Titus Flavius Domitianus, (or, simply Domitian) became Rome's Emperor and rebuilt Agrippa's work, but it, too burned down in about A.D. 110. He used it as a tribunal for public audiences (Dio 69.7.1). Also, at some time in the Middle Ages the left side of the porch was damaged which necessitated the replacement of three columns. The pediment above the columns is now empty but drill holes suggest there was originally an emblem of some sort, possibly an eagle or wreath which would have been in gilded bronze and symbolised Jupiter. However, these additions were rose-pink in colour whilst originally the front eight columns of the porch were all grey and only the internal four were pink Aswan. In October, the judges received a letter from a Dr. William Thornton. LeBron reacts to presidential call by trolling Trump. In the time of the Roman Emperor Augustus, about 10 BC, one of his generals, a man named Agrippa, built a temple in the middle of downtown Rome “to all the gods “. A traditional rectangular temple, first built by AgrippaThe conventional understanding of the Pantheon’s genesis, which held from 1892 until very recently, goes something like this. The Pantheon as we know it today was built in 120 AD by Empero… Y1 - 2013. https://www.ancient.eu/Pantheon/. The Pantheon has been in use since the time it was built. The third Pantheon was probably begun in the reign of Trajan (98-117 CE) but not finally finished until around 125 CE when Hadrian was emperor, who often convened the Roman Senate there. These may have been originally covered in bronze sheets. Hole in the Top of the Pantheonby Stephen Campbell (Public Domain). The tomb of famous Renaissance artist Raphael can be found in the Pantheon as he was buried there after his death in 1520. 24. Each alcove also had three niches for statues and a small window with another seven windows placed around the rotunda walls. Most historians claim that Emperor Augustus right hand, Agrippa, built the first Pantheon in 27 BC. The Pantheon, like all ancient monuments, has suffered a chequered history. The interior of the porch was also panelled with marble but this has since been lost, revealing the brickwork. Pantheon Front, Romeby Wknight94 (GNU FDL). His son, King Umberto I, was buried near his father in 1900. The Pantheon exists today in such amazing form because the Byzantine emperor Phocas gave it to Pope Boniface the IV in A.D 608 and it was used as a church ever since. Seventeen entries were submitted by the July deadline; the commission didn’t like any of them. The purpose of the building is not known for certain but the name, porch and pediment decoration suggest a temple of some sort. In contrast to the plain appearance of the outside, the interior of the building is lined with coloured marble, and the walls are marked by seven deep recesses, screened by pairs of columns whose modest size gives scale to the immensity of the rotunda. Despite these changes the Pantheon is one of the best preserved ancient monuments in the world and it still has an important function and status today as within it are the tombs of the Italian monarchy from 1870-1946 CE and another notable tomb is that of Raphael (1483-1520 CE). M3 - Chapter There is no external evidence of brick arch support inside the dome, except in the lowest part, and the exact method of construction has never been determined. How many hills was Rome built on? The Pantheon dome is built on a base of 8 barrel vaults that absorb the weight of the dome. The original Pantheon was a rectangular temple built by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, son-in-law of Augustus, the first Roman emperor, as part of a district renewal plan in 27-25 BC. Below the main inscription is a smaller one indicating the restorations carried out by Septimius Severus and Caracalla in 202 CE and reads: pantheum vetustate corruptum cum omni cultu restituerunt. However, no cult is known to all of the gods and so the Pantheon may have been designed as a place where the emperor could make public appearances in a setting which reminded onlookers of his divine status, equal with the other gods of the Roman pantheon and his deified emperor predecessors.

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