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frontinus' de aquaeductu urbis romae

11 138: Its conduit has a length of •22,172 paces, with •358 paces on arches. 86 Since censors were chosen only every five years, and held office for but eighteen months, their duties in the intervening periods devolved upon other officials. 103 Frontinus' books have made him the most famous of the Roman engineers. The intake of Virgo is on the Collatian Way at the eighth milestone, in a marshy spot, surrounded by a concrete enclosure for the purpose of confining the gushing waters. Messala succeeded to Agrippa, under the consulate of Q. Aelius Tubero and Paulus Fabius Maximus, according to Varro. In this connection, in going back to ancient laws enacted with regard to individual aqueducts, I found certain points wherein the practice of our forefathers differed from ours.  p463 be adjacent to the City, or in the gardens, properties, or estates of those owners or proprietors to whom the water is now or in future shall be given or granted, he shall be condemned to pay a fine of 100,000 sestertii169 to the Roman people; and in addition, whoever shall maliciously do any of these things shall be condemned to repair, restore, re-establish, reconstruct, replace what he has damaged, and quickly demolish what he has built — all in good faith and in such manner [as the commissioners may determine]. The square digit converted into its equivalent circle is 1 digit plus 1½ twelfths of a digit plus 1⁄72 in diameter; it measures 10⁄12 of a quinaria. 94 But by the increase of the pipes through which they receive water (cf. 32), the gain was 1013⁄24 quinariae in case of the 100‑pipe, and 66⅙ quinariae in case of the 120‑pipe; so that by adding the gains made at both ends of the bargain, we And in fact the supply has been almost doubled, and has been distributed with such careful allotment that wards which were previously supplied by only one aqueduct now receive the water of several. The ajutage was the nozzle, fitted to the water-pipe. See map facing p341. The location of these is uncertain. The English rendering does not reproduce the word play in venas Venocis. The work presents a history and description of the water-supply of the city of Rome, including the laws relating to its use and maintenance. He was a successful general under Domitian, commanding forces in Roman Britain, and on the Rhine and Danube frontiers. 41 But this is indefinite, because the plate, when made up into a round shape, will be extended on the exterior surface and contracted on the interior surface. e.g. an artificial basin made to receive the water at its source. Frontinus aimed at being useful and writes in a rather popular style which is both simple and clear. Down-stream from the settling-reservoir, 1,348 quinariae were delivered, — more than we have stated to be the capacity according to the records by 69 quinariae, but less than we have shown was received into the conduit from the settling-reservoir by 1,014 quinariae. 95 12 Blackman, Deane R., Hodge, A. Trevor (2001). The calix, now, is a bronze ajutage, inserted into a conduit or reservoir, and to it the service pipes are attached. 132  p381 But with the water-men it measured 3 digits plus 1⁄24 plus 6⁄288 in diameter, containing 6 quinariae. Those who are satisfied with knowing the totals, may skip the details.  p429 kept his own private gang of slaves for the maintenance of the aqueducts and reservoirs and basins. Since I have given in detail the builders of the several aqueducts, their dates, and, in addition, their sources, the lengths of their channels, and their elevations in sequence, it seems to me not out of keeping to add also some separate details, and to show how great is the supply which suffices not only for public and private uses and purposes, but also for the satisfaction of luxury; by how many reservoirs it is distributed and in what wards; how much water is delivered outside the City; how much is used for water-basins, how much for fountains, how much for public buildings, how much in the name of Caesar, how much for private consumption. 90 Agrippa refrained from taking in this brook either because he had condemned it, or because he thought it ought to be left to the proprietors at Tusculum, for this is the water which all the estates of that district receive in turn, dealt out to them on regular days and in regular quantities. Of these there were furnished in the name of Caesar 509 quinariae, to private parties 338 quinariae, for public uses 1,167 quinariae, — namely, to two ornamental fountains 26 quinariae, to twenty-five basins 51 quinariae, to masonry; otherwise a low foundation was built, to which the term substructio is applied. For example the 6‑pipe is six quarters in diameter, a 7‑pipe seven quarters, and so on by a uniform increase up to a 20‑pipe. Campus Martius The arches of Virgo begin under the it 63 But the main conduit, which passes Spes Vetus, comes inside the To the one water, which had its sources in the Caerulean and Curtian springs, was given the name Claudia. public structures 181 quinariae, to three ornamental fountains 67 quinariae, to twenty-eight basins 65 quinariae. Moreover, in the delivery of the water also it is manifest that there is fraud, since the amount actually delivered does not agree either with the statements of the records or with the gaugings Those who represent Agrippa as its inventor, declare it was so designated because five small ajutages or punctures, so to speak, of the old sort, through which water used to be distributed when the supply was scanty, were now united in one pipe. Lowest of all is Alsietina, which supplies the ward across the Tiber and the very lowest districts. The 8‑pipe: 2 digits in diameter; 6 digits plus 3⁄12 plus 10⁄288 in circumference; it has a capacity of 2 quinariae plus ½ plus 1⁄24 plus 5⁄288. The aedileship usually preceded the consulship by six years. Consequently, when the intake was at a considerable elevation, long detours became necessary in bringing the water to the City. For there are only 1,750 quinariae delivered, — less than the computation given in the records by 1,105 quinariae; also less than is shown by the gauging made at the intake by 2,857 quinariae, and less also than is found at the reservoir by 1,562 quinariae.96 For this reason, although it arrived in the City perfectly clear in its own conduit, it was mixed within the City with the New Anio, so that by creating confusion, the quantity as well as the distribution of the two might be obscured. the exact capacity of each type, and Frontinus, therefore, enumerates these first of all. This principle is regularly 88 Learn how and when to remove this template message, Models of Various Aqueducts of Ancient Rome, Routes of Various Aqueducts of Ancient Rome, Spanish site dedicated to Roman technology, especially aqueducts and mines, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=De_aquaeductu&oldid=958744377, Articles lacking in-text citations from February 2009, Articles containing explicitly cited English-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. This was devised to supplement Marcia, but is turned into the sources of Claudia, when Marcia does not need it, though not even the conduit of Claudia itself can carry all this water.99, 73 The size and character of the ajutage, therefore, were important factors in the measurement of the water discharged. The modern Tivoli, •about eighteen miles to the east of Rome. The Latin has "montium lateris", or simply: the sides of hills. The MS. says nothing of deliveries to private persons. 29 * Now the inch ajutage, has a diameter of 1⅓ digits.64 Its capacity is [slightly] more than 1⅛ quinariae, i.e., 1½ twelfths of a quinaria plus 3⁄288 plus ⅔ of 1⁄288 more. The meaning of this sentence is clear, though not the construction. The aggregate of what was lost either between the intake and the reservoir or downstream from the reservoir, was 2,499 quinariae, the diversion of which, as in case of the other aqueducts, we discovered at several places. 4 5a Lacunae are indicated by large spaces: to find them, search for asterisks. 39 The sextvs ivlivs frontinvs (c. 40 – 103 a.d.) strategemata. Just how much water was being stolen in this manner, I [can] estimate from the amount of lead brought in by the removal of that type of pipes. 125 At that time the Decemvirs,25 on consulting the Sibylline Books for another purpose, are said to have discovered that it was not right for the Marcian water, or rather the Anio (for tradition more regularly mentions this) to be brought to the Capitol. These hills, before the construction of Claudia, utilized the waters of Marcia and Julia; but after the Emperor Nero led Claudia over the arches at Spes Vetus up to the Temple of the Deified Claudius,105 in order to distribute it from there, the first named waters, instead of being augmented by this new supply, were themselves allowed to go unused;106 for he did not build new reservoirs for Claudia, but used those that already existed; and the old name of these remained, although the water had become a new one. Frontinus's fractions and the symbols which represent them are as follows. 54  p369 the following ajutages also up to the 20‑pipe, the diameter of each pipe increasing by the addition of ¼ of a digit. 93 16 The measure of the capacity of Alsietina is not set down in the records, nor could it be accurately arrived at under present conditions, because [it receives] from Lake Alsietinus, and afterwards in the vicinity of Careiae from Sabatinus as much water as the water-men arrange for. New Anio and Claudia are carried together from their catch-basins on lofty arches, Anio being above.53 Their arches end behind the Gardens of Pallas, and from that point their waters are distributed in pipes to serve the City. (In the 1,750 quinariae were included the 162 given to Julia. "The consuls, Quintus Aelius Tubero and Paulus Fabius Maximus, having made a report upon the They would insert pipes into the channel of the aqueducts to tap the supply without official approval, or insert pipes of larger diameter than approved. 100 The water-men are the men who receive the water from the State and in turn furnish it to the consumers. The correctness of our gauging is very easily proved; for Virgo discharges all the quinariae which we found by gauging, that is, 2,504. * For this the commissioner has been directed to provide, by a resolution of the Senate, the language of which is as follows: 104 About £1,500,000. For that some waters should be delivered under a How much care was taken that no one should venture to injure the conduits, or draw water that had not been granted, may be seen not only from many other things, but especially from the fact that the Circus Maximus could not be watered, even on the days of the Circensian Games, except with permission of the aediles or censors, a regulation which, as we read in the writings of Ateius Capito,128 was still in force even after the care of the waters had passed, under Augustus, to commissioners. (The 162 quinariae received from Claudia are not reckoned in computing this loss. 2 30 There is, besides, this intolerable method of cheating practised by the water-men: When a water-right is transferred to a new owner, they will insert a new ajutage in the reservoir; the old one they leave in the tank and draw from it water, which they sell. A Roman historian: he died in 21 A.D. 24 That granted water must not be carried elsewhere than upon the premises to which it has been made appurtenant, or taken from another reservoir than the one designated in the writing of the sovereign, is self-evident, but is forbidden also by ordinance.161. (1) The measurements at the intake showed 4,607 quinariae, the records credited 2,855 quinariae, a discrepancy of 1,752 quinariae; (2) measurements at the reservoir showed 3,312 quinariae, a loss of 1,295 quinariae between the intake and and, of those on arches, the parts that cross rivers suffer most from the effects of age or of violent storms. Julius Frontinus was appointed by the Emperor Nerva to the post of water commissioner for the city of Rome in 97 CE. 70 121 Frontinus's chief work is De aquaeductu, in two books, an official report to the emperor on the state of the aqueducts of Rome. liber i: liber ii: liber iii: liber iv: de aquaeductu urbis romae But now, whenever a conduit has succumbed to old age, it is the practice to carry it in certain parts on substructures or on arches, in order to save length, abandoning the subterranean loops in the valleys.48 The sixth rank in height is held by Old Anio, which would likewise be capable of supplying even the higher portions of the City, if it were raised up on substructures or arches, wherever the nature of the valleys and low places demands.

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